The most popular view on the rise and fall of Rail

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The rise and fall of Railways in developed countries. In the following decades, water transportation was not only the main mode of international transportation at that time, but also the main mode of domestic transportation in Europe, India and other countries. In 1825, the world's first railway was opened in Britain, marking

600 years ago, the emergence of long-range three masted sailboats opened up a maritime transportation system in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the following decades, water transportation was not only the main mode of international transportation at that time, but also the main mode of domestic transportation in Europe, India and other countries

In 1825, the world's first railway was opened in Britain, marking the arrival of the railway era. The railway catered to the requirements of the industrial revolution, changed the backward face of transportation, and almost monopolized land transportation for a century. At the end of the 19th century, the total length of Railways in the world reached 650000 kilometers, and by the 1920s, it had increased to 1.27 million kilometers. Railways in developed countries were basically formed

in the following decades, modern transportation modes such as highway, aviation and pipeline have sprung up rapidly, and railway transportation has gradually lost its monopoly position due to competition from all sides. The railway traffic volume of western developed countries has generally declined, and the operation has generally suffered losses. Some countries have had to dismantle or close railways. But at this time, railway construction is still in the ascendant in developing countries undergoing industrialization, and many countries have opened up new railway operations

generally, when a country is in the primary stage of industrialization, the role of railway in promoting the development of national economy is very large, but in the middle and late stage of industrialization, the impact of railway will be relatively weakened. However, from the experience of developed countries, if the railway itself can actively adapt to the economic development situation, develop and provide high-level services, its role can not be ignored even in the stage of industrial modernization. Developed countries have never stopped the pace of railway development. Various transportation facilities in the United States are very developed. The total operating mileage of the railway ranks first in the world. The market share of railway freight turnover remains the largest among all transportation modes. The United States has added 10 new channels, with a total mileage of 13364 kilometers, so that the railway channels can cover 85% of the 100 most populous metropolises in the United States. The freight turnover of Russian Railways is the third largest in the world after the United States and China. South Africa, Australia and other countries lead the world in railway heavy haul transportation. In 2001, Japan invested 492.6 billion yen in railway construction, including 229.3 billion yen for railway construction. In recent years, railway has risen again all over the world, mainly due to the following factors: the development of railway has made up for the shortcomings of slow land travel, and has adapted to the requirements of modern society for transportation with the characteristics of large capacity, fast speed, good safety, no waste gas pollution and effective use of resources. With the development of urban rail trains, heavy haul unit trains and container multimodal transport, the railway has new advantages

the railway can transport 50000 people per hour and its transportation cost is only 1/5 of that of air transportation, leading to road and air transportation, prompting many countries to consider building railways to improve transportation capacity and reduce costs

now many developed countries gradually realize that the disadvantage of railway in land transportation competition is mainly caused by the unequal competitive environment. Highway transportation has sufficient freedom, while railway is restricted by many factors; The state builds, maintains and manages highways, and sets up repair factories, service facilities, hotels and restaurants along the highways to benefit the highways. The railways must provide these services at their own expense and maintain and operate these services according to the operating procedures of the spring tension and compression testing machine. Highway transportation also produces a considerable number of external costs that do not have to be paid by itself, but lead to dangerous consequences, such as congestion, noise, pollution, accidents, etc. If these external costs are quantified or internalized, the cost is

amazing. With the establishment of sustainable development strategies in various countries around the world, governments began to re-examine the transportation development mode based on automobile transportation, and began to look for and develop new transportation modes that save resources and protect the environment

according to the completed unit transport volume, the unit energy consumption of aviation and highway is 6 times and 2.3 times that of railway respectively; The land occupied by highways in the United States, Canada, Germany and Japan is 5.6, 7.1, 6.6 and 13.6 times that of Railways respectively; The emissions of harmful gases carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are 420 and 100 times that of diesel locomotives for automobiles, 170 and 200 times that of diesel locomotives for airplanes, and almost no harmful gases are emitted by electric locomotives

the U.S. government has calculated that 84billion hours are lost every year due to road congestion, which is about 627billion dollars based on the minimum wage of $8 per hour; The Federal Highway Administration calculated the cost of road accidents in the United States in 1988, including the cost of pain and suffering, the loss of quality of life, and took electro-hydraulic loading, sensor force measurement, digital display force value, printer print force value data, and automatically converted the pressure resistance of $8billion, accounting for 8% of GNP. After quantifying the external transport costs of the 17 EU Member States, the figure is as high as US $310billion per year, of which roads account for 92%

in 1990, the U.S. government issued the U.S. transportation policy, which emphasized that the development of transportation industry must be coordinated with the protection of the environment and the improvement of the quality of life. Since then, the U.S. government has adopted economic policies such as automobile and gasoline consumption taxes, urban and traffic peak payment of

congestion prices, high parking fees, and other administrative interventions, such as compulsory carpooling and urban traffic permits. The experimental speed of the national standard rules is 200mm/min, and the market conditions are equipped with measures of 10~500 mm/min to curb the demand for highway use, and actively support the construction of railways

Germany has a developed comprehensive transportation system, but the government believes that the traffic volume borne by various transportation modes is not reasonable. The road transportation is overloaded, while the advantages of railway and water transportation have not been brought into full play. To this end, Germany has taken a series of measures to guide the transfer of highway traffic to railway and water transport. From 1992 to 2012, the investment in railway and water transport in the national transport plan reached 54%, exceeding the investment in highway for the first time; The method of adjusting taxes and fees is also adopted to guide people to choose more railways and water transportation

Japan ranks first in the world in terms of cars per unit area, which is not conducive to energy conservation and environmental protection. To this end, Japan has formulated a new policy to Promote Railway and maritime transport; Build and transform inter city and intra city passenger railway lines, establish an efficient and energy-saving transportation system, and actively promote the use of railways, maritime transport and business vehicles

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