Can Chongqing experience open the question mark of mechanization in hilly areas
under the current situation that the national agricultural mechanization is advancing towards the "two haves and two highs", the mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas has been firmly seated as a "nail household". On November 27, the "2018 southern hilly and mountainous region fruit tea mulberry and hemp production mechanization development forum and agricultural machinery equipment demonstration" held in Chongqing targeted the mechanization of Hilly and mountainous regions, so that Chongqing's experience in the development of mechanization of Hilly and mountainous regions from the region to the country, and has been resonated, recognized and widely praised by colleagues in the industry. So how does "Chongqing experience" answer this question? Can it work in the whole country
Chongqing is a combination of big cities and big villages. The existing cultivated land area is 36 million mu, of which hills and mountains account for 98%, slope cultivated land above 15 degrees accounts for 47.1%, single cultivated land area below 1 mu accounts for more than 80%, per capita cultivated land area is 1.12 mu, cultivated land scattered in more than 3 places accounts for 60%, and per household cultivated land size is less than 5 mu; Chongqing has a subtropical monsoon climate, with abundant rainfall but uneven seasonal distribution, dry winter and spring, summer and autumn. The above are all descriptions of the basic agricultural conditions of Agricultural Mechanization in Chongqing
Chongqing basically does not have the conditions to develop agricultural mechanization. In this place called "mountain city", it is a typical hilly landform. These lands, commonly known as "Mantou mountain", "chicken nest land" and "palm field", lack tractor roads, and are close to the land outside the highway, so agricultural machinery is difficult to access and cannot be used. According to a survey of Chongqing Municipal Agricultural Commission, among the reasons why large and medium-sized agricultural machinery cannot be used, 70.03% are unsuitable land conditions, of which 32.56% are too small plots, 28.94% are without tractor roads, and 8.53% are unsuitable terrain
on the development path of agricultural mechanization, Chongqing once had a "micro cultivator mode" driven by the policy of "replacing cattle with machines", that is, replacing cattle with micro cultivators. At that time, there was such a description: vigorously promote the popularization of micro cultivators, rely on the strong R & D strength, production capacity and complete sales network of micro cultivators, and encourage local micro cultivator enterprises to quickly occupy the market
however, the effect of Chongqing's "micro cultivator mode" is immediate. With the steady increase in the number of tillage machines represented by micro cultivators, the area of machine tillage has increased rapidly. The publicly reported data is that at the end of 2008, Chongqing had nearly 80000 micro cultivators, with an annual machine tillage area of more than 13million mu, accounting for 36% of the cultivated area, which should be a great achievement in Chongqing; By 2015, among the nearly 700000 agricultural machines in Chongqing, the micro tiller accounted for 660000, accounting for more than 90%, and the comprehensive mechanization level of cultivation and harvest of major crops reached more than 42%. Although it was 19 percentage points lower than the national average level of 63%, it should not be too much to say that the micro tiller has made the level of Agricultural Mechanization in Chongqing move beyond the initial stage
of course, its political significance can also be seen. The development of micro cultivators has improved the level of agricultural mechanization and agricultural productivity in Chongqing blood epidemic prevention area, improved the rural environment and farmers' production and living conditions, effectively prevented the spread of schistosomiasis, and slowly turned "driving cattle and plowing into a picture" into a memory in the mountain city
another major contribution of the "micro cultivator mode" is that it has driven the development of Chongqing's agricultural machinery manufacturing industry and made Chongqing's Micro cultivator manufacturing industry far ahead of the country. It is reported that by 2011, there were about 100 micro cultivator production enterprises in Chongqing, with a total output of more than 700000 units, accounting for about half of the total output of micro cultivators in China. Among them, the annual sales of Hesheng, huashidan, Huitian, Xinyuan, Weima, Zongshen and other brands exceeded 50000 units
the significance of micro tiller for Chongqing is more than that. Originally, most of these micro cultivator manufacturing enterprises were born out of the transformation of "Mobang". When the Southeast Asian market "closed" to Chinese motorcycles, they relied on mature supporting capabilities to transfer seamlessly, and finally formed a highly competitive and distinctive micro cultivator industry cluster, so that these long-term production capacity can find a way out in the field of agricultural machinery manufacturing. In the catalogue of agricultural machinery products supported and promoted by the state in 2012-2014, the products of 49 enterprises in Chongqing have entered it, which can not be said to be the chain result of the "micro cultivator mode"
plastic doors and windows are rarely called Chengye micro cultivator, and loser micro cultivator. Chongqing Agricultural Mechanization "micro tiller mode" finally did not work. First, the labor intensity is high, because the machine vibration is too large, anyone will inevitably have backache at the end of the day; Second, the operation efficiency is low. Even if a strong labor force operates, it can only plough and prepare the land for about 5 mu a day at most. The effect of working for 20 or 30 days a year is only 1/10 of that of large and medium-sized tractors. Moreover, a micro cultivator costs 3000 or 4000 yuan, and its service life is only twoorthree years; Third, the risk factor is high, people and machines are on the same working surface, there is no necessary safety protection measures, and human injury accidents continue. Wenzefu, director of the agricultural machinery and equipment department of Chongqing agricultural and Rural Committee, described the image of the micro tiller as: "liberated cattle and killed people."
hand in the paper
"micro cultivator mode" makes Chongqing Agricultural Mechanization go through a maze, but it has accumulated experience for finally going out of the maze
if we bypass the fatal shortcomings of micro cultivators, let's discuss the way out for Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas? Chongqing's answer is to change its working thinking from "adapting the place to the opportunity" to "changing the place to the opportunity". In other words, the land in Hilly and mountainous areas should be transformed into "suitable for mechanization", focusing on solving the problem of "the last kilometer" of large and medium-sized agricultural machinery. In wenzefu's words, Chongqing agriculture has entered a "suitable mechanization mode" by plugging in the power supply
where to operate? According to Qin Dachun, deputy director of Chongqing agricultural and Rural Committee, in the agricultural structure of Chongqing's Hilly and mountainous areas, the fruit mulberry, tea and hemp industry accounts for half of the total agricultural output value, which is collectively referred to as the orchard industry. Due to the limitations of Hilly and mountainous terrain conditions, the total level of mechanized production of the orchard industry is not high, which has become a weakness in the transformation and upgrading of Chongqing's agriculture and a constraint to the development of agricultural mechanization. Therefore, the orchard industry has been identified as the experimental field of "suitable mechanization mode"
according to the data, Chongqing's economic orchard industry now covers an area of more than 8 million mu, and the distribution of main varieties is: 3.2 million mu of citrus, 3.2 million mu of summer fruits, 1.2 million mu of Chinese prickly ash, and 1 million mu of traditional Chinese medicine. It is the main source of farmers' family business income and migrant income, and it is planned to develop to at least 10 million mu in the future. In Qin Dachun's view, "suitable mechanization mode" is the "potential stock" of Chongqing's agricultural structure transformation and upgrading, which will create a new blue ocean for the agricultural machinery market
"Chongqing 'suitable mechanization model' began in 2014. The background of the project is based on the actual needs of rural labor shortage, improving orchard productivity and cultivating new professional farmers; it entered the trial and calibration stage in 2015; and the demonstration and promotion stage from 2016 to 2018." Wenzefu said
in three years of exploration and practice, Chongqing has summarized a set of suitable mechanized operation system. The transformation content starts from four aspects: land renovation, road setting, drainage and irrigation system, and planting system; The requirements of land consolidation are: levelization, gentle slope and terracing. According to the size of land slope, cut ridges and fill ditches, small to large, short to long, disorderly to smooth; The idea of road setting is that there should be enough operation lanes, which can make a wrong car in the middle, turn around at the end of the field, and form a network with the tractor roads; The drainage system adopts the combination of physics and biology. Deep ditches are dug and hidden ditches are set. Subsoiling technology decomposes the runoff water on the soil surface, improves the soil moisture, and plants green manure all year round to improve the soil structure and conserve water
wenzefu said, "since the pilot project of high standard farmland mechanization construction of Chongqing Municipal Agricultural Commission has been implemented for three years, the number of districts and counties has been expanded from 23 to 32, with a municipal capital of 93 million yuan, driving owners to invest 175 million yuan, implementing 220 projects, and completing the transformation of more than 160000 mu."
at the beginning of 2017, with the release of the technical specification for the consolidation and renovation of land suitable for mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas (db50/t 795-2017) as a local standard in Chongqing, the "suitable for mechanization mode" entered the standard sequence. According to Ao Fangyuan, deputy director of Chongqing Agricultural Mechanization Technology Expert Committee, the basic principles for mechanization specified in the standard are: scientific site selection, accessible roads, deep soil layers, centralized and contiguous, good drainage and irrigation foundation, and the slope should not be greater than 25 °. Priority should be given to plots that have been transferred on a large scale, first easy, then difficult, and step by step. The standard also stipulates the construction content, detailed technical requirements and construction process, such as plot interconnection, elimination of dead corners, optimization of plot layout, rational layout of ditches, gravel landfill treatment, soil fertility and maturation, etcAo Fangyuan further introduced that the "machine friendly" transformation is a government supported project. In order to give full play to time efficiency and improve capital efficiency, Chongqing has established a perfect application system and fund use mechanism: adhere to the guiding ideology of who uses the land, who builds it first and then supplements it, select projects according to the principle of "competition, selection of the best and fairness", and formulate standardized construction processes: topographic mapping, scheme design, construction design Site setting out, engineering construction, data sorting, completion acceptance On the morning of December 28, I came to Qinglong village, Dasheng Town, Yubei District, Chongqing to observe the citrus orchard that has been transformed into a suitable machine. Looking around, the gentle slope is the transformed horizontal strip fields, on the ridges are neatly planted citrus seedlings, and between the ridges are trunk ditches; The steep slope is slope terrace, the reserved tractor road is on the inside, and the citrus seedlings on the outside grow well. In the xianggou and terraced fields, large and medium-sized agricultural machinery were busy, and the demonstrations of orchard tillage, ditching, pesticide spraying, unmanned aerial vehicles, rail transportation and other operations were carried out in an orderly manner, giving a panoramic view of the full mechanization of the whole process
Zhang Taolin, Vice Minister of the Ministry of agriculture and rural affairs, said when commenting on Chongqing's "suitable mechanization model": "Chongqing has carried out the pilot project of lump sum awards and subsidies for the suitable mechanization transformation of fields throughout the city, which has explored a realistic path to solve the problems of agricultural mechanization development in Hilly and mountainous areas." As a new measure to solve the bottleneck of Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas, Chongqing's experience can be replicated, popularized and sustainable, and has a typical leading and exemplary role
first, it solved the problem of putting medium and large agricultural machines and tools into the ground, and realized the full mechanized operation of main grain crops and special cash crops from the aspects of farming and planting, breaking through the bottleneck of industrialized preparation, collection, management, transportation, clothing and so on. Wenzefu said, "in the past, 50 horsepower tractors were rare in Chongqing. Now 80-120 horsepower tractors have become the main model. In 2017, the first 1854 tractor entered the Chongqing market."Second, on the premise of full mechanization, it not only solved the problem of labor shortage in the past, but also promoted the adjustment of agricultural structure, the improvement of agricultural comprehensive production capacity and the development of green agriculture through the rotation of major grain crops such as rice, rape, sorghum and corn. For example, the Yongchuan Yuangui cooperative has transferred more than 2800 mu of land, achieved an annual output of more than 1500 tons of green and high-quality selenium rich rice, purchased more than 100 sets of agricultural machinery and tools, and carried out socialized service business, radiating more than 10000 mu of surrounding farmland; Another example: Hechuan district develops the "pig biogas orange" circulating breeding mode, and Rongchang district develops the "pig biogas bamboo" circulating breeding mode. Both of the two circulating modes are effectively absorbed